Biotin and Desthiobiotin
Biotin (or vitamin H) is a small biologically active molecule with a molecular weight of 244.31 Da. It acts as a co-enzyme in living cells. With its highly specific affinity towards streptavidin, it is used in various biotechnology assays &peptide synthesis for quality and quantity testing.
Desthiobiotin: Binds to streptavidin but can be displaced by biotin. Useful when you need to get your peptide out of a binding experiment. THE molecular weight: 214.31 Da.
Farnesyl is a potential substrate to study demethylase activity in enzyme assays.
Formic acid (Formyl)
Myristic acid (Myristoyl)
Palmitic acid (Palmitoyl)
Stearic acid (Stearyl)
Phosphorylation Peptide Modification
Phosphorylationof Ser, Thr and Tyr is one of the more common modifications of amino acids in nature. Many hormones can adapt the activity of specific enzymes by increasing their phosphorylation state of Ser or Thr residues. Growth factors (like insulin) can trigger phosphorylation of Tyr.
The phosphate groups on these amino acids can be quickly removed, thus Ser, Thr and Tyr function as molecular switches during regulation of cellular processes (e.g. cancer proliferation).
Succinic acid (Succinyl)
Sulfurylation at Ser, Thr and Tyr is another Peptide Modification of amino acids in nature. Activity of many enzymes depends on the oxidation state of SH-groups in these residues.